unified

Project: mdx-js/mdx

Package: @mdx-js/mdx@2.1.5

  1. Dependents: 0
  2. MDX compiler
  1. remark 199
  2. markdown 145
  3. mdx 36
  4. jsx 20
  5. mdxast 5

@mdx-js/mdx

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MDX compiler.

Contents

What is this?

This package is a compiler that turns MDX into JavaScript. It can also evaluate MDX code.

When should I use this?

This is the core compiler for turning MDX into JavaScript and which gives you the most control. If you’re using a bundler (webpack, Rollup, esbuild), or a site builder (Gatsby, Next.js) or build system (Vite, WMR) which comes with a bundler, you’re better off using an integration: see § Integrations.

Install

This package is ESM only: Node 12+ is needed to use it and it must be imported instead of required.

npm:

npm install @mdx-js/mdx

yarn:

yarn add @mdx-js/mdx

Use

Say we have an MDX document, example.mdx:

export const Thing = () => <>World!</>

# Hello, <Thing />

Add some code in example.js to compile example.mdx to JavaScript:

import {promises as fs} from 'node:fs'
import {compile} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const compiled = await compile(await fs.readFile('example.mdx'))

console.log(String(compiled))

Yields roughly:

/* @jsxRuntime automatic @jsxImportSource react */
import {Fragment as _Fragment, jsx as _jsx, jsxs as _jsxs} from 'react/jsx-runtime'

export const Thing = () => _jsx(_Fragment, {children: 'World'})

function _createMdxContent(props) {
  const _components = Object.assign({h1: 'h1'}, props.components)
  return _jsxs(_components.h1, {
    children: ['Hello ', _jsx(Thing, {})]
  })
}

export default function MDXContent(props = {}) {
  const {wrapper: MDXLayout} = props.components || {}
  return MDXLayout
    ? _jsx(MDXLayout, Object.assign({}, props, {children: _jsx(_createMdxContent, props)}))
    : _createMdxContent(props)
}

See § Using MDX for more on how MDX work and how to use the result.

API

This package exports the following identifiers: compile, compileSync, evaluate, evaluateSync, run, runSync, and createProcessor. There is no default export.

compile(file, options?)

Compile MDX to JS.

file

MDX document to parse (string, Buffer in UTF-8, vfile, or anything that can be given to vfile).

Example
import {VFile} from 'vfile'
import {compile} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

await compile(':)')
await compile(Buffer.from(':-)'))
await compile({path: 'path/to/file.mdx', value: '🥳'})
await compile(new VFile({path: 'path/to/file.mdx', value: '🤭'}))
options.remarkPlugins

List of remark plugins, presets, and pairs.

Example
import remarkFrontmatter from 'remark-frontmatter' // YAML and such.
import remarkGfm from 'remark-gfm' // Tables, footnotes, strikethrough, task lists, literal URLs.

await compile(file, {remarkPlugins: [remarkGfm]}) // One plugin.
await compile(file, {remarkPlugins: [[remarkFrontmatter, 'toml']]}) // A plugin with options.
await compile(file, {remarkPlugins: [remarkGfm, remarkFrontmatter]}) // Two plugins.
await compile(file, {remarkPlugins: [[remarkGfm, {singleTilde: false}], remarkFrontmatter]}) // Two plugins, first w/ options.
options.rehypePlugins

List of rehype plugins, presets, and pairs.

Example
import rehypeKatex from 'rehype-katex' // Render math with KaTeX.
import remarkMath from 'remark-math' // Support math like `$so$`.

await compile(file, {remarkPlugins: [remarkMath], rehypePlugins: [rehypeKatex]})

await compile(file, {
  remarkPlugins: [remarkMath],
  // A plugin with options:
  rehypePlugins: [[rehypeKatex, {throwOnError: true, strict: true}]]
})
options.recmaPlugins

List of recma plugins. This is a new ecosystem, currently in beta, to transform esast trees (JavaScript).

options.remarkRehypeOptions

Options to pass through to remark-rehype. The option allowDangerousHtml will always be set to true and the MDX nodes are passed through. In particular, you might want to pass clobberPrefix, footnoteLabel, and footnoteBackLabel.

Example
compile({value: '…'}, {remarkRehypeOptions: {clobberPrefix: 'comment-1'}})
options.mdExtensions

List of markdown extensions, with dot (Array<string>, default: ['.md', '.markdown', '.mdown', '.mkdn', '.mkd', '.mdwn', '.mkdown', '.ron']).

options.mdxExtensions

List of MDX extensions, with dot (Array<string>, default: ['.mdx']). Has no effect in compile or evaluate but does affect § Integrations.

options.format

Format the file is in ('detect' | 'mdx' | 'md', default: 'detect').

The format cannot be detected if a file is passed without a path or extension: mdx will be assumed. So pass a full vfile (with path) or an object with a path.

Example
compile({value: '…'}) // Seen as MDX
compile({value: '…'}, {format: 'md'}) // Seen as markdown
compile({value: '…', path: 'readme.md'}) // Seen as markdown

// Please do not use `.md` for MDX as other tools won’t know how to handle it.
compile({value: '…', path: 'readme.md'}, {format: 'mdx'}) // Seen as MDX
compile({value: '…', path: 'readme.md'}, {mdExtensions: []}) // Seen as MDX

This option mostly affects § Integrations because in those it affects which files are “registered”:

options.outputFormat

Output format to generate ('program' | 'function-body', default: 'program'). In most cases 'program' should be used, as it results in a whole program. Internally, evaluate uses outputFormat: 'function-body' to compile to code that can be evaled with run. In some cases, you might want to do what evaluate does in separate steps yourself, such as when compiling on the server and running on the client.

The 'program' format will use import statements to import the runtime (and optionally provider) and use an export statement to yield the MDXContent component.

The 'function-body' format will get the runtime (and optionally provider) from arguments[0], rewrite export statements, and use a return statement to yield what was exported. Normally, this output format will throw on import (and export … from) statements, but you can support them by setting options.useDynamicImport.

Example

A module example.js:

import {compile} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const code = 'export const no = 3.14\n\n# hi {no}'

console.log(String(await compile(code, {outputFormat: 'program'}))) // Default
console.log(String(await compile(code, {outputFormat: 'function-body'})))

…yields:

/* @jsxRuntime automatic @jsxImportSource react */
import {jsx as _jsx, jsxs as _jsxs} from 'react/jsx-runtime'
export const no = 3.14
function _createMdxContent(props) { /* … */ }
export default function MDXContent(props = {}) { /* … */ }
const {Fragment: _Fragment, jsx: _jsx} = arguments[0]
const no = 3.14
function _createMdxContent(props) { /* … */ }
function MDXContent(props = {}) { /* … */ }
return {no, default: MDXContent}
options.useDynamicImport

Whether to compile to dynamic import expressions (boolean, default: false). This option applies when options.outputFormat is 'function-body'.

@mdx-js/mdx can turn import statements (import x from 'y') into dynamic imports (const {x} = await import('y')). This is useful because import statements only work at the top level of JavaScript modules, whereas import() is available inside function bodies.

When you turn useDynamicImport on, you should probably set options.baseUrl too.

Example

Say we have a couple modules:

// meta.js:
export const title = 'World'

// numbers.js:
export const no = 3.14

// example.js:
import {compileSync} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const code = `import {name} from './meta.js'
export {no} from './numbers.js'

# hi {name}!`

console.log(String(compileSync(code, {outputFormat: 'function-body', useDynamicImport: true})))

…now running node example.js yields:

const {Fragment: _Fragment, jsx: _jsx, jsxs: _jsxs} = arguments[0]
const {name} = await import('./meta.js')
const {no} = await import('./numbers.js')
function _createMdxContent(props) { /* … */ }
function MDXContent(props = {}) { /* … */ }
return {no, default: MDXContent}
options.baseUrl

Resolve imports (and export … from, and import.meta.url) from this URL (string?, example: import.meta.url).

Relative specifiers are non-absolute URLs that start with /, ./, or ../. For example: /index.js, ./folder/file.js, or ../main.js.

This option is useful when code will run in a different place. One example is when .mdx files are in path a but compiled to path b and imports should run relative the path b. Another example is when evaluating code, whether in Node or a browser.

Example

Say we have a module example.js:

import {compile} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const code = 'export {number} from "./data.js"\n\n# hi'
const baseUrl = 'https://a.full/url' // Typically `import.meta.url`

console.log(String(await compile(code, {baseUrl})))

…now running node example.js yields:

import {Fragment as _Fragment, jsx as _jsx} from 'react/jsx-runtime'
export {number} from 'https://a.full/data.js'
function _createMdxContent(props) { /* … */ }
function MDXContent(props = {}) { /* … */ }
export default MDXContent
options.development

Whether to add extra information to error messages in generated code (boolean?, default: false). The default can be set to true in Node.js through environment variables: set NODE_ENV=development.

Example

Say we had some MDX that references a component that can be passed or provided at runtime:

**Note**<NoteIcon />: some stuff.

And a module to evaluate that:

import {promises as fs} from 'node:fs'
import * as runtime from 'react/jsx-runtime'
import {evaluate} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const path = 'example.mdx'
const value = await fs.readFile(path)
const MDXContent = (await evaluate({path, value}, runtime)).default

console.log(MDXContent())

Running that would normally (production) yield:

Error: Expected component `NoteIcon` to be defined: you likely forgot to import, pass, or provide it.
    at _missingMdxReference (eval at run (…/@mdx-js/mdx/lib/run.js:18:10), <anonymous>:27:9)
    at _createMdxContent (eval at run (…/@mdx-js/mdx/lib/run.js:18:10), <anonymous>:15:20)
    at MDXContent (eval at run (…/@mdx-js/mdx/lib/run.js:18:10), <anonymous>:9:9)
    at main (…/example.js:11:15)

But if we change add development: true to our example:

@@ -7,6 +7,6 @@
 const path = 'example.mdx'
 const value = await fs.readFile(path)
-const MDXContent = (await evaluate({path, value}, runtime)).default
+const MDXContent = (await evaluate({path, value}, {development: true, ...runtime})).default
 console.log(MDXContent({}))

And we’d run it again, we’d get:

Error: Expected component `NoteIcon` to be defined: you likely forgot to import, pass, or provide it.
It’s referenced in your code at `1:9-1:21` in `example.mdx`
provide it.
    at _missingMdxReference (eval at run (…/@mdx-js/mdx/lib/run.js:18:10), <anonymous>:27:9)
    at _createMdxContent (eval at run (…/@mdx-js/mdx/lib/run.js:18:10), <anonymous>:15:20)
    at MDXContent (eval at run (…/@mdx-js/mdx/lib/run.js:18:10), <anonymous>:9:9)
    at main (…/example.js:11:15)
options.SourceMapGenerator

The SourceMapGenerator class from source-map (optional). When given, the resulting file will have a map field set to a source map (in object form).

Example

Assuming example.mdx from § Use exists, then:

import {promises as fs} from 'node:fs'
import {SourceMapGenerator} from 'source-map'
import {compile} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const file = await compile(
  {path: 'example.mdx', value: await fs.readFile('example.mdx')},
  {SourceMapGenerator}
)

console.log(file.map)

…yields:

{
  version: 3,
  sources: ['example.mdx'],
  names: ['Thing'],
  mappings: ';;aAAaA,QAAQ;YAAQ;;;;;;;;iBAE3B',
  file: 'example.mdx'
}
options.providerImportSource

Place to import a provider from (string?, example: '@mdx-js/react'). Useful for runtimes that support context (React, Preact). The provider must export a useMDXComponents, which is called to access an object of components.

Example

If file is the contents of example.mdx from § Use, then:

compile(file, {providerImportSource: '@mdx-js/react'})

…yields this difference:

 /* @jsxRuntime automatic @jsxImportSource react */
 import {Fragment as _Fragment, jsx as _jsx, jsxs as _jsxs} from 'react/jsx-runtime'
+import {useMDXComponents as _provideComponents} from '@mdx-js/react'

 export const Thing = () => _jsx(_Fragment, {children: 'World!'})

 function _createMdxContent(props) {
-  const _components = Object.assign({h1: 'h1'}, props.components)
+  const _components = Object.assign({h1: 'h1'}, _provideComponents(), props.components)
   return _jsxs(_components.h1, {children: ['Hello ', _jsx(Thing, {})]})
 }

 export default function MDXContent(props = {}) {
-  const {wrapper: MDXLayout} = props.components || {}
+  const {wrapper: MDXLayout} = Object.assign({}, _provideComponents(), props.components)

   return MDXLayout
     ? _jsx(MDXLayout, Object.assign({}, props, {children: _jsx(_createMdxContent, {})}))
     : _createMdxContent()
options.jsx

Whether to keep JSX (boolean?, default: false). The default is to compile JSX away so that the resulting file is immediately runnable.

Example

If file is the contents of example.mdx from § Use, then:

compile(file, {jsx: true})

…yields this difference:

 /* @jsxRuntime automatic @jsxImportSource react */
-import {Fragment as _Fragment, jsx as _jsx, jsxs as _jsxs} from 'react/jsx-runtime'

-export const Thing = () => _jsx(_Fragment, {children: 'World!'})
+export const Thing = () => <>World!</>

 function _createMdxContent(props) {
   const _components = Object.assign({h1: 'h1'}, props.components)
-  return _jsxs(_components.h1, {children: ['Hello ', _jsx(Thing, {})]})
+  return <_components.h1>{"Hello "}<Thing /></_components.h1>
 }

 export default function MDXContent(props = {}) {
   const {wrapper: MDXLayout} = props.components || {}
   return MDXLayout
-    ? _jsx(MDXLayout, Object.assign({}, props, {children: _jsx(_createMdxContent, props)}))
+    ? <MDXLayout {...props}><_createMdxContent {...props} /></MDXLayout>
     : _createMdxContent(props)
 }
 }
options.jsxRuntime

JSX runtime to use ('automatic' | 'classic', default: 'automatic'). The classic runtime compiles to calls such as h('p'), the automatic runtime compiles to import _jsx from '$importSource/jsx-runtime'\n_jsx('p').

Example

If file is the contents of example.mdx from § Use, then:

compile(file, {jsxRuntime: 'classic'})

…yields this difference:

-/* @jsxRuntime automatic @jsxImportSource react */
-import {Fragment as _Fragment, jsx as _jsx, jsxs as _jsxs} from 'react/jsx-runtime'
+/* @jsxRuntime classic @jsx React.createElement @jsxFrag React.Fragment */
+import React from 'react'

-export const Thing = () => _jsx(_Fragment, {children: 'World!'})
+export const Thing = () => React.createElement(React.Fragment, null, 'World!')
options.jsxImportSource

Place to import automatic JSX runtimes from (string?, default: 'react'). When in the automatic runtime, this is used to define an import for _Fragment, _jsx, and _jsxs.

Example

If file is the contents of example.mdx from § Use, then:

compile(file, {jsxImportSource: 'preact'})

…yields this difference:

-/* @jsxRuntime automatic @jsxImportSource react */
-import {Fragment as _Fragment, jsx as _jsx, jsxs as _jsxs} from 'react/jsx-runtime'
+/* @jsxRuntime automatic @jsxImportSource preact */
+import {Fragment as _Fragment, jsx as _jsx, jsxs as _jsxs } from 'preact/jsx-runtime'
options.pragma

Pragma for JSX (string?, default: 'React.createElement'). When in the classic runtime, this is used as an identifier for function calls: <x /> to React.createElement('x').

You should most probably define pragmaFrag and pragmaImportSource too when changing this.

Example

If file is the contents of example.mdx from § Use, then:

compile(file, {
  jsxRuntime: 'classic',
  pragma: 'preact.createElement',
  pragmaFrag: 'preact.Fragment',
  pragmaImportSource: 'preact/compat'
})

…yields this difference:

-/* @jsxRuntime classic @jsx React.createElement @jsxFrag React.Fragment */
-import React from 'react'
+/* @jsxRuntime classic @jsx preact.createElement @jsxFrag preact.Fragment */
+import preact from 'preact/compat'

-export const Thing = () => React.createElement(React.Fragment, null, 'World!')
+export const Thing = () => preact.createElement(preact.Fragment, null, 'World!')
options.pragmaFrag

Pragma for JSX fragments (string?, default: 'React.Fragment'). When in the classic runtime, this is used as an identifier for fragments: <> to React.createElement(React.Fragment).

See options.pragma for an example.

options.pragmaImportSource

Where to import the identifier of pragma from (string?, default: 'react'). When in the classic runtime, this is used to import the pragma function. To illustrate with an example: when pragma is 'a.b' and pragmaImportSource is 'c' this following will be generated: import a from 'c'.

See options.pragma for an example.

Returns

Promise<VFile> — Promise that resolves to the compiled JS as a vfile.

Example
import remarkPresetLintConsistent from 'remark-preset-lint-consistent' // Lint rules to check for consistent markdown.
import {reporter} from 'vfile-reporter'
import {compile} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const file = await compile('*like this* or _like this_?', {remarkPlugins: [remarkPresetLintConsistent]})

console.error(reporter(file))

Yields:

  1:16-1:27  warning  Emphasis should use `*` as a marker  emphasis-marker  remark-lint

⚠ 1 warning

compileSync(file, options?)

Compile MDX to JS. Synchronous version of compile. When possible please use the async compile.

evaluate(file, options)

☢️ Danger: It’s called evaluate because it evals JavaScript.

Compile and run MDX. When possible, please use compile, write to a file, and then run with Node, or use one of the § Integrations. But if you trust your content, evaluate can work.

Typically, import (or export … from) do not work here. They can be compiled to dynamic import() by passing options.useDynamicImport.

file

See compile.

options

Most options are the same as compile, with the following exceptions:

options.jsx
options.jsxs
options.Fragment

These three options are required. They come from an automatic JSX runtime that you must import yourself.

Example
import * as runtime from 'react/jsx-runtime'

const {default: Content} = await evaluate('# hi', {...runtime, ...otherOptions})
options.useMDXComponents

Needed if you want to support a provider.

Example
import * as provider from '@mdx-js/react'
import * as runtime from 'react/jsx-runtime'

const {default: Content} = await evaluate('# hi', {...provider, ...runtime, ...otherOptions})
Returns

Promise<OMDXModule> — Promise that resolves to something that looks a bit like a module: an object with a default field set to the component and anything else that was exported from the MDX file available too.

Example

Assuming the contents of example.mdx from § Use was in file, then:

import * as runtime from 'react/jsx-runtime'
import {evaluate} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

console.log(await evaluate(file, {...runtime}))

…yields:

{Thing: [Function: Thing], default: [Function: MDXContent]}
Note: Performance

Compiling (and running) MDX takes time. If you’re live-rendering a string of MDX that often changes using a virtual DOM based framework (such as React), one performance improvement is to call the MDXContent component yourself. The reason is that the evaluate creates a new function each time, which cannot be diffed:

 const {default: MDXContent} = await evaluate('…')

-<MDXContent {...props} />
+MDXContent(props)

evaluateSync(file, options)

☢️ Danger: It’s called evaluate because it evals JavaScript.

Compile and run MDX. Synchronous version of evaluate. When possible please use the async evaluate.

run(functionBody, options)

☢️ Danger: This evals JavaScript.

Run MDX compiled as options.outputFormat: 'function-body'.

options

You can pass jsx, jsxs, and Fragment from an automatic JSX runtime as options. You can also pass useMDXComponents from a provider in options if the MDX is compiled with options.providerImportSource: '#' (the exact value of this compile option doesn’t matter). All other options have to be passed to compile instead.

Returns

Promise<MDXModule> — See evaluate

Example

On the server:

import {compile} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const code = String(await compile('# hi', {outputFormat: 'function-body'}))
// To do: send `code` to the client somehow.

On the client:

import * as runtime from 'react/jsx-runtime'
import {run} from '@mdx-js/mdx'

const code = '' // To do: get `code` from server somehow.

const {default: Content} = await run(code, runtime)

…yields:

[Function: MDXContent]

runSync(functionBody, options)

☢️ Danger: This evals JavaScript.

Run MDX. Synchronous version of run. When possible please use the async run.

createProcessor(options)

Create a unified processor to compile MDX to JS. Has the same options as compile, but returns a configured processor.

Note that format: 'detect' does not work here: only 'md' or 'mdx' are allowed (and 'mdx' is the default).

Types

This package is fully typed with TypeScript. See § Types on our website for information.

Additional CompileOptions, EvaluateOptions, and ProcessorOptions types are exported, which represents acceptable configuration for their respective methods.

Architecture

To understand what this project does, it’s very important to first understand what unified does: please read through the unifiedjs/unified readme (the part until you hit the API section is required reading).

@mdx-js/mdx is a unified pipeline — wrapped so that most folks don’t need to know about unified: core.js#L65. The processor goes through these steps:

  1. Parse MDX (serialized markdown with embedded JSX, ESM, and expressions) to mdast (markdown syntax tree)
  2. Transform through remark (markdown ecosystem)
  3. Transform mdast to hast (HTML syntax tree)
  4. Transform through rehype (HTML ecosystem)
  5. Transform hast to esast (JS syntax tree)
  6. Do the work needed to get a component
  7. Transform through recma (JS ecosystem)
  8. Serialize esast as JavaScript

The input is MDX (serialized markdown with embedded JSX, ESM, and expressions). The markdown is parsed with micromark/micromark and the embedded JS with one of its extensions micromark/micromark-extension-mdxjs (which in turn uses acorn). Then syntax-tree/mdast-util-from-markdown and its extension syntax-tree/mdast-util-mdx are used to turn the results from the parser into a syntax tree: mdast.

Markdown is closest to the source format. This is where remark plugins come in. Typically, there shouldn’t be much going on here. But perhaps you want to support GFM (tables and such) or frontmatter? Then you can add a plugin here: remark-gfm or remark-frontmatter, respectively.

After markdown, we go to hast (HTML). This transformation is done by syntax-tree/mdast-util-to-hast. Wait, why, what does HTML have to do with it? Part of the reason is that we care about HTML semantics: we want to know that something is an <a>, not whether it’s a link with a resource ([text](url)) or a reference to a defined link definition ([text][id]\n\n[id]: url). So an HTML AST is closer to where we want to go. Another reason is that there are many things folks need when they go MDX -> JS, markdown -> HTML, or even folks who only process their HTML -> HTML: use cases other than MDX. By having a single AST in these cases and writing a plugin that works on that AST, that plugin can supports all these use cases (for example, rehypejs/rehype-highlight for syntax highlighting or rehypejs/rehype-katex for math). So, this is where rehype plugins come in: most of the plugins, probably.

Then we go to JavaScript: esast (JS; an AST which is compatible with estree but looks a bit more like other unist ASTs). This transformation is done by syntax-tree/hast-util-to-estree. This is a new ecosystem that does not have utilities or plugins yet. But it’s where @mdx-js/mdx does its thing: where it adds imports/exports, where it compiles JSX away into _jsx() calls, and where it does the other cool things that it provides.

Finally, The output is serialized JavaScript. That final step is done by astring, a small and fast JS generator.

Security

See § Security on our website for information.

Contribute

See § Contribute on our website for ways to get started. See § Support for ways to get help.

This project has a code of conduct. By interacting with this repository, organization, or community you agree to abide by its terms.

License

MIT © Compositor and Vercel