# mdast-util-math

mdast extensions to parse and serialize math (`$C_L$`

).

## Contents

- What is this?
- When to use this
- Install
- Use
- API
- HTML
- Syntax
- Syntax tree
- Types
- Compatibility
- Related
- Contribute
- License

## What is this?

This package contains two extensions that add support for math syntax in markdown to mdast. These extensions plug into `mdast-util-from-markdown`

(to support parsing math in markdown into a syntax tree) and `mdast-util-to-markdown`

(to support serializing math in syntax trees to markdown).

## When to use this

This project is useful when you want to support math in markdown. Extending markdown with a syntax extension makes the markdown less portable. LaTeX equations are also quite hard. But this mechanism works well when you want authors, that have some LaTeX experience, to be able to embed rich diagrams of math in scientific text.

You can use these extensions when you are working with `mdast-util-from-markdown`

and `mdast-util-to-markdown`

already.

When working with `mdast-util-from-markdown`

, you must combine this package with `micromark-extension-math`

.

When you don’t need a syntax tree, you can use `micromark`

directly with `micromark-extension-math`

.

All these packages are used `remark-math`

, which focusses on making it easier to transform content by abstracting these internals away.

This utility adds fields on nodes so that the utility responsible for turning mdast (markdown) nodes into hast (HTML) nodes, `mdast-util-to-hast`

, turns text (inline) math nodes into `<code class="language-math math-inline">…</code>`

and flow (block) math nodes into `<pre><code class="language-math math-display">…</code></pre>`

.

## Install

This package is ESM only. In Node.js (version 16+), install with npm:

```
npm install mdast-util-math
```

In Deno with `esm.sh`

:

```
import {mathFromMarkdown, mathToMarkdown} from 'https://esm.sh/mdast-util-math@3'
```

In browsers with `esm.sh`

:

```
<script type="module">
import {mathFromMarkdown, mathToMarkdown} from 'https://esm.sh/mdast-util-math@3?bundle'
</script>
```

## Use

Say our document `example.md`

contains:

```
Lift($L$) can be determined by Lift Coefficient ($C_L$) like the following
equation.
$$
L = \frac{1}{2} \rho v^2 S C_L
$$
```

…and our module `example.js`

looks as follows:

```
import fs from 'node:fs/promises'
import {math} from 'micromark-extension-math'
import {fromMarkdown} from 'mdast-util-from-markdown'
import {mathFromMarkdown, mathToMarkdown} from 'mdast-util-math'
import {toMarkdown} from 'mdast-util-to-markdown'
const doc = await fs.readFile('example.md')
const tree = fromMarkdown(doc, {
extensions: [math()],
mdastExtensions: [mathFromMarkdown()]
})
console.log(tree)
const out = toMarkdown(tree, {extensions: [mathToMarkdown()]})
console.log(out)
```

…now running `node example.js`

yields (positional info and data removed for brevity):

```
{
type: 'root',
children: [
{
type: 'paragraph',
children: [
{type: 'text', value: 'Lift('},
{type: 'inlineMath', value: 'L', data: {/* … */}},
{type: 'text', value: ') can be determined by Lift Coefficient ('},
{type: 'inlineMath', value: 'C_L', data: {/* … */}},
{type: 'text', value: ') like the following\nequation.'}
]
},
{type: 'math', meta: null, value: 'L = \\frac{1}{2} \\rho v^2 S C_L', data: {/* … */}}
]
}
```

```
Lift($L$) can be determined by Lift Coefficient ($C_L$) like the following
equation.
$$
L = \frac{1}{2} \rho v^2 S C_L
$$
```

## API

This package exports the identifiers `mathFromMarkdown`

and `mathToMarkdown`

. There is no default export.

`mathFromMarkdown()`

Create an extension for `mdast-util-from-markdown`

.

###### Returns

Extension for `mdast-util-from-markdown`

(`FromMarkdownExtension`

).

`mathToMarkdown(options?)`

Create an extension for `mdast-util-to-markdown`

.

###### Parameters

`options`

(`ToOptions`

, optional) — configuration

###### Returns

Extension for `mdast-util-to-markdown`

(`ToMarkdownExtension`

).

`InlineMath`

Math (text) (TypeScript type).

###### Type

```
import type {Data, Literal} from 'mdast'
interface InlineMath extends Literal {
type: 'inlineMath'
data?: InlineMathData | undefined
}
export interface InlineMathData extends Data {}
```

`Math`

Math (flow) (TypeScript type).

###### Type

```
import type {Data, Literal} from 'mdast'
interface Math extends Literal {
type: 'math'
meta?: string | null | undefined
data?: MathData | undefined
}
export interface MathData extends Data {}
```

`ToOptions`

Configuration (TypeScript type).

###### Fields

`singleDollarTextMath`

(`boolean`

, default:`true`

) — whether to support math (text) with a single dollar. Single dollars work in Pandoc and many other places, but often interfere with “normal” dollars in text. If you turn this off, you can still use two or more dollars for text math

## HTML

This plugin integrates with `mdast-util-to-hast`

. When mdast is turned into hast the math nodes are turned into `<code class="language-math math-inline">…</code>`

and `<pre><code class="language-math math-display">…</code></pre>`

elements.

## Syntax

See Syntax in `micromark-extension-frontmatter`

.

## Syntax tree

The following interfaces are added to **mdast** by this utility.

### Nodes

`Math`

```
interface Math <: Literal {
type: 'code'
meta: string?
}
```

**Math** (**Literal**) represents a block of math, such as LaTeX mathematical expressions.

**Math** can be used where **flow** content is expected. Its content is represented by its `value`

field.

This node relates to the **phrasing** content concept **InlineMath**.

A `meta`

field can be present. It represents custom information relating to the node.

For example, the following markdown:

```
$$
L = \frac{1}{2} \rho v^2 S C_L
$$
```

Yields:

```
{
type: 'math',
meta: null,
value: 'L = \\frac{1}{2} \\rho v^2 S C_L',
data: {/* … */}
}
```

`InlineMath`

```
interface InlineMath <: Literal {
type: 'inlineMath'
}
```

**InlineMath** (**Literal**) represents a fragment of computer code, such as a file name, computer program, or anything a computer could parse.

**InlineMath** can be used where **phrasing** content is expected. Its content is represented by its `value`

field.

This node relates to the **flow** content concept **Math**.

For example, the following markdown:

```
$L$
```

Yields:

```
{type: 'inlineMath', value: 'L', data: {/* … */}}
```

### Content model

`FlowContent`

(math)

```
type FlowContentMath = Math | FlowContent
```

`PhrasingContent`

(math)

```
type PhrasingContentMath = InlineMath | PhrasingContent
```

## Types

This package is fully typed with TypeScript. It exports the additional types `InlineMath`

, `Math`

, and `ToOptions`

.

It also registers the node types with `@types/mdast`

. If you’re working with the syntax tree, make sure to import this utility somewhere in your types, as that registers the new node types in the tree.

```
/**
* @typedef {import('mdast-util-math')}
*/
import {visit} from 'unist-util-visit'
/** @type {import('mdast').Root} */
const tree = getMdastNodeSomeHow()
visit(tree, function (node) {
// `node` can now be one of the nodes for math.
})
```

## Compatibility

Projects maintained by the unified collective are compatible with maintained versions of Node.js.

When we cut a new major release, we drop support for unmaintained versions of Node. This means we try to keep the current release line, `mdast-util-math@^3`

, compatible with Node.js 16.

This plugin works with `mdast-util-from-markdown`

version 2+ and `mdast-util-to-markdown`

version 2+.

## Related

`remark-math`

— remark plugin to support math`micromark-extension-math`

— micromark extension to parse math

## Contribute

See `contributing.md`

in `syntax-tree/.github`

for ways to get started. See `support.md`

for ways to get help.

This project has a code of conduct. By interacting with this repository, organization, or community you agree to abide by its terms.