Project: syntax-tree/mdast-util-math

Package: mdast-util-math@2.0.1

  1. Dependents: 0
  2. mdast extension to parse and serialize math
  1. markdown 156
  2. util 145
  3. utility 141
  4. unist 131
  5. mdast 87
  6. mdast-util 30
  7. markup 18
  8. math 6
  9. latex 6
  10. tex 5
  11. katex 4


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mdast extensions to parse and serialize math ($C_L$).


What is this?

This package contains two extensions that add support for math syntax in markdown to mdast. These extensions plug into mdast-util-from-markdown (to support parsing math in markdown into a syntax tree) and mdast-util-to-markdown (to support serializing math in syntax trees to markdown).

When to use this

This project is useful when you want to support math in markdown. Extending markdown with a syntax extension makes the markdown less portable. LaTeX equations are also quite hard. But this mechanism works well when you want authors, that have some LaTeX experience, to be able to embed rich diagrams of math in scientific text.

You can use these extensions when you are working with mdast-util-from-markdown and mdast-util-to-markdown already.

When working with mdast-util-from-markdown, you must combine this package with micromark-extension-math.

When you don’t need a syntax tree, you can use micromark directly with micromark-extension-math.

All these packages are used remark-math, which focusses on making it easier to transform content by abstracting these internals away.

This utility adds fields on nodes so that the utility responsible for turning mdast (markdown) nodes into hast (HTML) nodes, mdast-util-to-hast, turns text (inline) math nodes into <code class="language-math math-inline">…</code> and flow (block) math nodes into <pre><code class="language-math math-display">…</code></pre>.


This package is ESM only. In Node.js (version 16+), install with npm:

npm install mdast-util-math

In Deno with esm.sh:

import {mathFromMarkdown, mathToMarkdown} from 'https://esm.sh/mdast-util-math@3'

In browsers with esm.sh:

<script type="module">
  import {mathFromMarkdown, mathToMarkdown} from 'https://esm.sh/mdast-util-math@3?bundle'


Say our document example.md contains:

Lift($L$) can be determined by Lift Coefficient ($C_L$) like the following

L = \frac{1}{2} \rho v^2 S C_L

…and our module example.js looks as follows:

import fs from 'node:fs/promises'
import {math} from 'micromark-extension-math'
import {fromMarkdown} from 'mdast-util-from-markdown'
import {mathFromMarkdown, mathToMarkdown} from 'mdast-util-math'
import {toMarkdown} from 'mdast-util-to-markdown'

const doc = await fs.readFile('example.md')

const tree = fromMarkdown(doc, {
  extensions: [math()],
  mdastExtensions: [mathFromMarkdown()]


const out = toMarkdown(tree, {extensions: [mathToMarkdown()]})


…now running node example.js yields (positional info and data removed for brevity):

  type: 'root',
  children: [
      type: 'paragraph',
      children: [
        {type: 'text', value: 'Lift('},
        {type: 'inlineMath', value: 'L', data: {/* … */}},
        {type: 'text', value: ') can be determined by Lift Coefficient ('},
        {type: 'inlineMath', value: 'C_L', data: {/* … */}},
        {type: 'text', value: ') like the following\nequation.'}
    {type: 'math', meta: null, value: 'L = \\frac{1}{2} \\rho v^2 S C_L', data: {/* … */}}
Lift($L$) can be determined by Lift Coefficient ($C_L$) like the following

L = \frac{1}{2} \rho v^2 S C_L


This package exports the identifiers mathFromMarkdown and mathToMarkdown. There is no default export.


Create an extension for mdast-util-from-markdown.


Extension for mdast-util-from-markdown (FromMarkdownExtension).


Create an extension for mdast-util-to-markdown.


Extension for mdast-util-to-markdown (ToMarkdownExtension).


Math (text) (TypeScript type).

import type {Data, Literal} from 'mdast'

interface InlineMath extends Literal {
  type: 'inlineMath'
  data?: InlineMathData | undefined

export interface InlineMathData extends Data {}


Math (flow) (TypeScript type).

import type {Data, Literal} from 'mdast'

interface Math extends Literal {
  type: 'math'
  meta?: string | null | undefined
  data?: MathData | undefined

export interface MathData extends Data {}


Configuration (TypeScript type).



This plugin integrates with mdast-util-to-hast. When mdast is turned into hast the math nodes are turned into <code class="language-math math-inline">…</code> and <pre><code class="language-math math-display">…</code></pre> elements.


See Syntax in micromark-extension-frontmatter.

Syntax tree

The following interfaces are added to mdast by this utility.



interface Math <: Literal {
  type: 'code'
  meta: string?

Math (Literal) represents a block of math, such as LaTeX mathematical expressions.

Math can be used where flow content is expected. Its content is represented by its value field.

This node relates to the phrasing content concept InlineMath.

A meta field can be present. It represents custom information relating to the node.

For example, the following markdown:

L = \frac{1}{2} \rho v^2 S C_L


  type: 'math',
  meta: null,
  value: 'L = \\frac{1}{2} \\rho v^2 S C_L',
  data: {/* … */}


interface InlineMath <: Literal {
  type: 'inlineMath'

InlineMath (Literal) represents a fragment of computer code, such as a file name, computer program, or anything a computer could parse.

InlineMath can be used where phrasing content is expected. Its content is represented by its value field.

This node relates to the flow content concept Math.

For example, the following markdown:



{type: 'inlineMath', value: 'L', data: {/* … */}}

Content model

FlowContent (math)

type FlowContentMath = Math | FlowContent

PhrasingContent (math)

type PhrasingContentMath = InlineMath | PhrasingContent


This package is fully typed with TypeScript. It exports the additional types InlineMath, Math, and ToOptions.

It also registers the node types with @types/mdast. If you’re working with the syntax tree, make sure to import this utility somewhere in your types, as that registers the new node types in the tree.

 * @typedef {import('mdast-util-math')}

import {visit} from 'unist-util-visit'

/** @type {import('mdast').Root} */
const tree = getMdastNodeSomeHow()

visit(tree, function (node) {
  // `node` can now be one of the nodes for math.


Projects maintained by the unified collective are compatible with maintained versions of Node.js.

When we cut a new major release, we drop support for unmaintained versions of Node. This means we try to keep the current release line, mdast-util-math@^3, compatible with Node.js 16.

This plugin works with mdast-util-from-markdown version 2+ and mdast-util-to-markdown version 2+.


See contributing.md in syntax-tree/.github for ways to get started. See support.md for ways to get help.

This project has a code of conduct. By interacting with this repository, organization, or community you agree to abide by its terms.


MIT © Titus Wormer